- Inflammation of the bronchial mucosa : In recent years it has been shown that treatment of inflammation is the most important part of asthma treatment. So far, put too much emphasis on bronchodilation, but if there is inflammation, the effects of bronchodilators are ephemeral. There are several medications that have anti-inflammatory effect in bronchial mucosa, but the most powerful and effective are corticosteroids (cortisone) inhaled. Inhaled corticosteroid doses used are very low and produce a topical effect without the side effects of oral administration, intravenous or intramuscular injection. Inhaled corticosteroids have become the most important drug in the treatment of asthma. They begin to be prescribed in patients with persistent asthma, ie those in which symptoms occur several days a week, and in those in which symptoms occur at night. For those symptoms occur sporadically, for example one or two times every 15 days, it is necessary to start with steroids and bronchodilators may be sufficient.
- Bronchospasm : Inhaled corticosteroids do not act immediately, even when they effect after a few days of treatment, bronchospasm forwards. But for the immediate treatment of it is used bronchodilators are usually given by inhalation. There are two basic types according to the duration of action: long-acting bronchodilators are taken morning and evening every day, whether or not the symptoms, while short acting are usually reserved to take in case of need (shortness of breath, coughing, etc). The ultimate goal is that patients resort to short-acting bronchodilators on rare occasions. Otherwise, it is necessary to promote anti-inflammatory treatment. Obviously, patients with severe asthma, despite maximum anti-inflammatory treatment, often require bronchodilators.
- Allergy : In patients who demonstrated an allergic component, treatment with antihistamines may be beneficial. On the other hand, with certain allergies are effective immunological treatments (vaccines) that can significantly help in controlling asthma. However, as effective in treating allergies is to avoid or minimize exposure to allergens. For example, in the case of allergy to dust mites, hygienic measures are simple house can significantly reduce their presence.
Gastroesophageal reflux and chronic sinusitis can aggravate or cause asthma, so it is important to rule in cases of asthma do not respond to usual treatment.
Obviously, people with asthma should completely abstain from smoking because snuff smoke is an irritant that causes inflammation of the bronchi. Occupational exposures that cause asthma (flour, wood, etc..) Should be avoided if possible by proper air ventilation and use of protective masks. In severe cases it is necessary to change jobs.