17 May 2011

Drug Control in the long term

Medications to control long-term asthma medications include inhaled anti-inflammatory drugs (drugs that reduce or prevent inflammation of the airways), and long-acting bronchodilators (drugs that open the airways by relaxing the muscles around the airway and respiratory tighten during asthma).
The goal of long-term medication is to reduce and prevent inflammation of the airways that can trigger asthma attacks. According to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the acronym is NHLBI ), the drugs long-term control may be recommended for people who:
  • Experience asthma symptoms three or more times a week.
  • Experience asthma symptoms at night three or more times per month.
When people first start the medication long-term control, it may take a few weeks for the medication to take effect. It is important that the medication long-term control is taken every day, even if the person feels good to continue to control asthma at an optimal level.

Medications to control long-term asthma may include:
  • Inhaled corticosteroids - anti-inflammatory medication that prevents swelling of the airways when exposed to asthma triggers . Steroids, which also reduce mucus in the lungs, are sometimes used to prevent and control asthma as mild, moderate and severe.
  • Cromolyn and nedocromil - nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are often used to treat children with mild asthma . (Cromolyn and nedocromil can not stop symptoms during an asthma attack. They are only used to prevent these from occurring.)
  • Long-acting beta2 agonists - mainly used to control moderate to severe asthma and prevent nighttime symptoms, these bronchodilator medications relax the muscles around the tightened airways so that they are reopened. These drugs do not reduce inflammation, so they are often prescribed along with anti-inflammatory drugs, such as an inhaled steroid.
  • Sustained-release theophylline tablets or sustained-release beta2-agonists - bronchodilators used to prevent nighttime symptoms. Theophylline needs to build up in the bloodstream over time to be effective in the treatment of asthma.
  • Leukotriene Modifiers - These drugs block the action of chemicals called leukotrienes, which are white blood cells and may cause inflammation and narrowing of the airways. Leukotriene modifiers can not stop symptoms during an asthma attack. Only used to prevent from occurring . Leukotriene modifiers seem to be more effective in people with aspirin-sensitive asthma (a type of asthma triggered by an allergic reaction to aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug).
Examples of medicines to control asthma long-term
Inhaled corticosteroids Beclomethasone, budesonide, flunisolide, fluticasone, triamcinolone.
Inhaled cromolyn and nedocromil Sodium cromoglycate, nedocromil sodium.
Leukotriene modifiers (tablets). Zafirlukast, zileuton.
Beta2 agonists for prolonged action Salmeterol (inhaled), albuterol (tablets).
Theophylline (fluid pills). Teofilina.

11 May 2011

Associated diseases of asthma

  • Inflammation of the bronchial mucosa : In recent years it has been shown that treatment of inflammation is the most important part of asthma treatment. So far, put too much emphasis on bronchodilation, but if there is inflammation, the effects of bronchodilators are ephemeral. There are several medications that have anti-inflammatory effect in bronchial mucosa, but the most powerful and effective are corticosteroids (cortisone) inhaled. Inhaled corticosteroid doses used are very low and produce a topical effect without the side effects of oral administration, intravenous or intramuscular injection. Inhaled corticosteroids have become the most important drug in the treatment of asthma. They begin to be prescribed in patients with persistent asthma, ie those in which symptoms occur several days a week, and in those in which symptoms occur at night. For those symptoms occur sporadically, for example one or two times every 15 days, it is necessary to start with steroids and bronchodilators may be sufficient.
  • Bronchospasm : Inhaled corticosteroids do not act immediately, even when they effect after a few days of treatment, bronchospasm forwards. But for the immediate treatment of it is used bronchodilators are usually given by inhalation. There are two basic types according to the duration of action: long-acting bronchodilators are taken morning and evening every day, whether or not the symptoms, while short acting are usually reserved to take in case of need (shortness of breath, coughing, etc). The ultimate goal is that patients resort to short-acting bronchodilators on rare occasions. Otherwise, it is necessary to promote anti-inflammatory treatment. Obviously, patients with severe asthma, despite maximum anti-inflammatory treatment, often require bronchodilators.
  • Allergy : In patients who demonstrated an allergic component, treatment with antihistamines may be beneficial. On the other hand, with certain allergies are effective immunological treatments (vaccines) that can significantly help in controlling asthma. However, as effective in treating allergies is to avoid or minimize exposure to allergens. For example, in the case of allergy to dust mites, hygienic measures are simple house can significantly reduce their presence.
Associated diseases and general measures
Gastroesophageal reflux and chronic sinusitis can aggravate or cause asthma, so it is important to rule in cases of asthma do not respond to usual treatment.
Obviously, people with asthma should completely abstain from smoking because snuff smoke is an irritant that causes inflammation of the bronchi. Occupational exposures that cause asthma (flour, wood, etc..) Should be avoided if possible by proper air ventilation and use of protective masks. In severe cases it is necessary to change jobs.

    07 May 2011

    Prevent asthma problems

    Relaxed atmosphere for the asthmatic patient , trying not to show the anguish that provokes crisis in the family.
    Keep well hydrated by asthmatic mucus secretions to be fluid and easier to pass.
    If the asthma is a very emotional person, you should try to change the way you handle problems or joys, which can trigger an attack.
    Breathing through the nose and not your mouth especially when you exercise, and drying the back of his throat and cooled can trigger asthma. Hence, swimming is great exercise, because the mouth is closed longer and wetter. Similarly, any exercise is good that requires less physical effort such as baseball, tennis, golf.
    Include foods such as fatty fish, fruits and vegetables (especially those high in antioxidant vitamin C) in the diet.

    Avoid vegetable oils like sunflower, which are rich in fatty acids and reducing or eliminating meat and animal fat, except fish.

    Kick the habit of smoking , and snuff the smoke can be an irritant that causes asthma by paralyzing the tiny hairlike cilia membranes of the respiratory mucosa. If the asthmatic smoker living with a Person who can not quit, he should be asked to smoke outside.
    Do not have pets dogs, cats, parrots, etc.. Recommended only fish.
    Beware of weather changes , it can be a trigger of asthma.
    Remove dust mites and can cause asthma attacks. The following is recommended for elimnarlos or keep them at a minimum:
    • Mattress cover with airtight, dustproof.
    • Wash sheets weekly Callientes water
    • Do not put rugs
    • Use washable curtains
    • Avoid items that trap dust
    • When cleaning dusty areas should wear a mask.
    Do not eat ice cream or drink extremely cold , and cold can cause bronchospasm.
    Avoid exposure to chemicals such as polyurethane and urethane used in the plastics industry, to clean dry chemical resins and paint industry.
    Using inhalers.  If you find that the spray comes out of his mouth, is misusing the device. Nor is it right to introduce the device in the mouth and make a couple of quick sprays should be The way is to keep the inhaler utiizada two or three centimeters from the mouth open, take a deep breath and a half seconds later activate the inhaler. Continue to breathe and then hold your breath between three to five seconds.

    It is necessary to go to a doctor when you notice that your asthma is increasing in frequency and is beginning to take more medication than normal.

    01 May 2011

    Drugs to prevent or treat exercise-induced asthma

    There are three types of medications to prevent or treat the symptoms of exercise-induced asthma. Your doctor can help determine the best treatment for you according to your asthma condition and type of activity or exercise you do.
    The first drug is short acting beta2 agonist , also called bronchodilators . This drug can prevent symptoms and should be taken between 10 and 15 minutes before exercise . This drug prevents symptoms for up to 4 hours and can also be used to treat and reverse the symptoms of exercise-induced asthma.
    The second drug is a long-acting bronchodilator . Currently available only one type of this drug, salmeterol . It is necessary to take between 30 and 60 minutes before physical activity and only once every 12 hours . Salmeterol can prevent asthma symptoms for about 10 or 12 hours. This medicine should only be used to prevent symptoms and to alleviate never happen because once does not provide any quick relief .
    The third type of drug is cromolyn sodium or nedocromil . You should also take a 15 or 20 minutes before exercise . There is evidence that taking these drugs prevents the slow response of exercise-induced asthma that some people have. Furthermore, these drugs should only be used as a preventive measure because they do not relieve symptoms once they start. Some people use one of these drugs in combination with a short-term bronchodilator.
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